Bladder dysfunction often occurs when muscular or neural compromise. Diet, medications and stress can affect the neural component of bladder function causing dysfunction. For women, childbirth can negatively influence bladder function with urinary incontinence being the most prevalent report. Problems holding urine can result from infection, injury, surgery, scarring and radiation therapy of the prostate and other pelvic organs.
Below is a listing of urinary incontinence in its various forms:
Interstitial Cystitis (IC)
Interstitial Cystitis (IC) or Painful Bladder Syndrome affects more than 4 million people in the United States and is associated with pelvic pain or pressure. Symptoms of IC can be continuous or intermittent, and it is usually described as a deep ache in the pelvis. Learn more here. Symptoms of IC can include the following:
- Pain or burning before, during or after urination
- Pelvic pain or pressure
- Urinary urgency, frequency, retention
- Nocturia (urinating frequently at night)
- Dysparuenia (pain with intercourse)
- Back, suprapubic, and/or abdominal pain
Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)
SUI is involuntary leakage of urine with exertion such as sneezing or coughing. It is commonly experienced after prostate surgery or radiotherapy.
Urge Urinary Incontinence
Urge incontinence is involuntary leakage accompanied by or immediately preceded by urgency to urinate.
Urgency incontinence is a sudden compelling desire to pass urine which is difficult to defer. Often this occurs despite recent bladder emptying.
Frequency occurs when there is an increased need to urinate with out an accompanying increase in urine volume. This can occur when the detrusor muscle is unstable (the muscle within the bladder that allows for stretching), the bladder is unable to stretch appropriately to store urine or when too much urine is produced.
Mixed incontinence is a combination of involuntary leakage, increased urgency and stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Nocturia is an increased incidence of waking up to urinate at night.
Nocturnal polyuria is a condition where the majority of urine output in a 24 hour period is during the night. The night time urine output excludes the last void before sleep but includes the first void of the morning.
Nocturnal enuresis is the voiding of urine whilst asleep in the night/bed wetting.
Post-mictruition dribble is the involuntary loss of urine immediately after passing urine. It usually occurs after leaving toilet or urinal.
Terminal dribble is the slowing down of urine flow (to a dribble) at the end of urination. This may be due to muscle failure (the Bulbocavernous muscle) to fully evacuate the urethra. Pelvic floor muscle exercises are a preferable form of treatment.
Continual Urinary Incontinence
Continual urinary incontinence can occur when the muscles that control the flow of urine have been injured or severely weakened. The condition often requires the continual use of incontinence protection pads or a pessary device to hold the urethra closed.
Overflow incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine that occurs when the bladder has become overly-full or distended.
Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia
Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia is a neurological condition often associated with spinal cord injuries or multiple sclerosis. The reflexes that regulate the release of urine are disrupted resulting in difficulty releasing urine. Occasionally, urinary flow may be prevented altogether and require medical intervention.
Detrusor underactivity is reduced strength or stamina of the muscles that help the release of urine. It often results in prolonged bladder empyting and/or failure to achieve complete bladder emptying within a normal time span.
Incomplete emptying can occur with an obstruction in the urethra which can occur with an enlarged prostate, shy bladder syndrome or dysfunction with the detrusor muscle. The detrusor muscle normally contracts with urination to empty the bladder.
National Association For Continence
National Association For Continence- Men’s Page
National Institute on Aging